Behavioral thermoregulation for sensational and physiological climatic design
While being fully aware of residents’ lifestyles, the environment is evaluated from the viewpoint of health and comfort, I am researching environments that are physically and emotionally friendly, or earth-friendly environments that have a small environmental load. This viewpoint is fixed centrally in the academic fields of human environmental engineering or environmental physiology, architectural and urban ecology, architectural environmental engineering and environmental psychology, etc.
For the human body, making a healthy and comfortable living space has become a key problem for a solid 21st Century welfare society. In order to create a comfortable living environment or improve the current living environment, it is essential to correctly recognize the fundamental life-sustaining mechanism that humans have of body temperature regulation relating to the thermal environment through the physiological or psychological reaction of the human body to effects affecting the human body. This thermal environment is known to have an effect on the human body, the result of which is a series of research being taken on that builds on the creation and development of the living environment as a target. This research is concerned with residential environment assessment from the human view point, based upon physiological and psychological knowledge of the human body, resolving the effect of the thermal environment on the body and utilizing that result to create or improve residents’ environment for including equivalent temperature in which thermal sense is considered in aiming towards developing an environmental control system.
The fundamentals when examining the effects of the thermal environment on humans are the body temperature regulation mechanism and heat balance. Thermal environment research using these theories is progressing, and thermal environmental indices and the human body’s comfort zone, amongst other things have been proposed.
Thermal environmental indices and body temperature are drawn from the body heat balance equation, and show the heat balance between the human body and the surrounding environment. To calculate the body heat balance, various coefficients relating to the human body must be specified. These have been used from research relating to thermal environmental indices or heat balance of the thermal environment in research facilities that had light work in an office space as the main object. However, as freedom of movement is higher in the living space than in the research facilities, behavioral temperature regulation is carried out to control the thermal environment through a moving environment. For example, controlling the room temperature or air velocity by opening or closing a window to get a through breeze or change the air, controlling sunlight or thermal radiation by changing your relative position to the wall or window, controlling the amount of clothing by removing or putting on clothes, or controlling the heat transfer area by spreading your body out or huddling up to yourself, to name a few. Within these behavioral temperature regulations, actions that have a strong influence on the body coefficients relating to heat balance are those actions that change the posture.
Thermal environmental indices are derived based on various theories and methods. Thermal environment factors taken from many thermal environmental indices are based upon heat balance equation showing the heat balance between the human body and its surrounding environment. Symbolized to daily living style, the many postures that can be taken are closely related to the floor in the living space, and the difference in these postures have a strong effect on the body coefficients concerned with heat balance. In a normal room space, by moving the body, maintaining appropriate conditions through the state of posture or movement of posture attendant with living conditions, external work is performed. Therefore, heat balance equation of the human body can be constructed from heat the heat conserved by the body through heat produced by metabolism and heat exchanged by convection, radiation, evaporation, and conduction.
In this point, research has progressed with the coefficient values relating to the human body that are the heat balance equation between the body and the environment and factors of the body. Fundamental research is done relating to the calculation of heat balance between the body and the environment, the thermal characteristic values of the human body corresponding to heat transfer amounts for each of the basis postures that can be taken in the living space. Then for each of the positions mentioned, the calculation for the body’s surface area, the calculations for the mean skin temperature considering the area of heat transfer by convection, the calculations for the mean skin temperature considering the area of heat transfer by conduction, the ratio of convective heat transfer area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the ratio of radiative heat transfer area, the configuration factor, the radiative heat transfer coefficient, the ratio of conductive heat transfer area and the basic seated metabolic ratio of the human body were all clarified. Also, changes due to the ratio of clothing area factor and clothing’s thermal insulation for postures were looked for. Furthermore, considering as fundamental, the heat balance and thermal relations between the human body and the environment, and focusing on postures in the living space as a part of behavioral temperature regulation, the comfort zone in the thermal environment, the human body surface models, the behavioral thermoregulation models, the sensational and physiological temperature indices were also looked for.
Beyond this, central to the research are big features in trying to solve the thermal environment for the living space.